These theories are like lenses through which you can view film. In the USA, the theory was based on sociological theory, with a focus on the function of female characters within the narratives/genres of films. Film theory sometimes seems difficult and complicated, but fundamentally it’s a range of different tools that you can use to explain how film works. Usually, it also looks at how film affects/is affected by the individual viewer as well as society as a whole. Film theory is an academic discipline that aims to explore the essence of the cinema and provides conceptual frameworks for understanding film's relationship to reality, the other arts, individual viewers, and society at large. As the audience watched them talk, they wouldn’t know the bomb was there and when it exploded, it would surprise them. Cognitive film theory, as its advocates often point out, is not actually a unified theory of film. Feminist film theory is a theoretical film criticism derived from feminist politics and feminist theory influenced by Second Wave Feminism and brought about around the 1970s in the United States. Thus, in the academic world, Film Theory is a branch of Film Studies. NeoFormalism also points out that art is not simply symbolism because, art often asks the viewer to look at familiar objects and concepts through new lenses. Lev Kuleshov was another Soviet filmmaker and theorist. In short, it both reflects and provides commentary on the society it came from. But what exactly is it? Queer Theory subverts traditional institutions of society that are based on the heteronormative model of human sexuality, and acknowledges the broad spectrum of sexuality, sexual orientation, and gender identity. Plus, we’ll provide an overview of a few major film theorists and their thoughts. Feminist film theory mostly began in two places. Lights, Camera, Action. Partner with us to reach an enthusiastic audience of students, enthusiasts and professional videographers and filmmakers. His 1925 film Battleship Potemkin received acclaim worldwide and is still used in film schools to show the power of montage. Theorists in the 1920s focused on the camera and the edit as the two major factors that make film a unique artform. Nernst postulated that near the interface there exists a stagnant film . Often seen as dense and abstract, film theory can be a useful tool in understanding the meaning and impact of a film. Nonetheless, decades later, in Cinéma I and Cinema II (1983–1985), the philosopher Gilles Deleuze took Matter and Memory as the basis of his philosophy of film and revisited Bergson's concepts, combining them with the semiotics of Charles Sanders Peirce. His theories of editing are still taught today as ‘The Kuleshov Effect’. From a psychoanalytical perspective, after the Lacanian notion of "the Real", Slavoj Žižek offered new aspects of "the gaze" extensively used in contemporary film analysis. 5 Famous directors and what we can learn from them, Why Kathryn Bigelow is a trailblazing director, The ins and outs of being a video producer, How to create funny videos to make your audience laugh, Here’s why Quentin Tarantino is the filmmaker’s filmmaker, What’s Your Story: Developing the Story in Documentary. Film theory recognizes the cinema as a distinct art form. André Bazin was a French film critic and theorist whose work in the 1940s challenged the prevailing attitudes of the ‘20s and ‘30s. Germaine Dulac was an early French filmmaker and film theorist. This differentiates this area from many otherphilosophical disciplines. Originally focused on depictions of women in cinema, Feminist Theory critiques The Male Gaze. Ettinger's notions articulate the links between aesthetics, ethics and trauma. [6], In the 1960s and 1970s, film theory took up residence in academia importing concepts from established disciplines like psychoanalysis, gender studies, anthropology, literary theory, semiotics and linguistics—as advanced by scholars such as Christian Metz. A step-by-step approach to these issues guides the reader through the central topics of film theory. outlines the discipline's key theoretical concepts, perspectives, and traditions, and critically examines the assertions posited by exemplary film theorists and philosophers of film. Film Theory is an academic discipline that aims to explore cinema through it's relation to it's connection to society at large; understanding films relationship to reality, art, individual viewers and society at large. French philosopher Henri Bergson's Matter and Memory (1896) anticipated the development of film theory during the birth of cinema in the early twentieth century. However, in his 1906 essay L'illusion cinématographique (in L'évolution créatrice; English: The cinematic illusion) he rejects film as an example of what he had in mind. Theory Where did the male gaze come from? Marxist theory is based in influencing the viewer through realistic and unbiased structure. Bergson commented on the need for new ways of thinking about movement, and coined the terms "the movement-image" and "the time-image". While physicists often write about thephilosophy of science, the academic discipline of the philosophy ofphysics is dominated by professional philosophers… "What is Film Theory?" [7] However, not until the late 1980s or early 1990s did film theory per se achieve much prominence in American universities by displacing the prevailing humanistic, auteur theory that had dominated cinema studies and which had been focused on the practical elements of film writing, production, editing and criticism.[8]. On the whole, editing provides new context and meaning through juxtaposing images. Formalist Film Theory looks at the technical aspects of film — shots, editing, lighting, sound. She began making films in the 1910s with an interest in differentiating film as a distinct art, separate from painting or literature. On the whole, this article will give a brief understanding of the history of film theory and some of the major schools of thought within film theory. Laura Mulvey is a contemporary British film theorist and filmmaker. Mulvey’s essay, published two years later in Screen magazine, was written for an academic audience so it can be a little difficult to understand. There are two features of the philosophy of film that need to bediscussed before delving into more specific issues. Key characteristics of formalism is the theoretical and critical emphasis on form. As technologies have progressed, contemporary film theory now looks at where and how we encounter cinema. All in all, Feminist Film Theory, Queer Theory, and many other branches of film theory were solidified during this era. In this framework, men are active participants in the world and women are objects that matter only so far as their relationship to men. This book is a lively and provoking introduction to film theory. The theory argues that a film is ultimately a reflection of the director’s vision; so, a film by a given filmmaker will feature recognizable, recurring themes and visual tropes that allow a viewer to observe a consistent artistic identity throughout the director’s body of work. The film theory has been extensively applied to describe the mass transfer in systems in which fluid phases are present. Film theory is not to be confused with general film criticism, though there can be some crossover between the two disciplines. His film Man with a Movie Camera is a classic of documentary filmmaking. As such, it is related to Literary Theory and Semiotics. Sometimes, that means relying on an inexperienced cast and crew to complete your project. outlines the discipline's key theoretical concepts, perspectives, and traditions, and critically examines the assertions posited by exemplary film theorists and philosophers of film. This holds that creating a film is inherently a political act — either reinforcing or subverting the dominant cultural paradigm. The simple mechanics of representation — what is shot and what is cut — intertwine with the filmmakers individual point of view. That is, a true auteur has distinctive characteristics that mark their work, regardless of other influences on the project. Film theory is a scholarly pursuit, which attempts to explain the essence of what film is. Filmmaker and theorist Laura Mulvey first coined the term “the male gaze” in her seminal 1973 paper Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema. During the 1990s the digital revolution in image technologies has influenced film theory in various ways. This perspective holds that although others, such as the screenwriter and the cinematographer, are major creative forces, the director has final authority. Bracha Ettinger is an Isreali-born, contemporary French film theorist. By comparing patterns and relationships of the structure within a single film, and between several films, we can better understand meaning. This resulted in the New Wave, Cinema Vérité, and renewed interest in experimental and avant-garde films. Dulac started out as an Impressionist, and her film La Coquille et le Clergyman has been regarded as the first Surrealist film. [2] Film theory is not to be confused with general film criticism, or film history, though these three disciplines interrelate. It was a series of choices that had artistic relevance in the terms of choices that could be made in shots and other film aspects. Literary Theory and Criticism English Literature, Literary Theory and Criticism, Linguistics, Film Theory, Ebooks, UGC NET JRF Preparation, Novel Analysis, Scholarly Articles Nasrullah Mambrol His work also led to the theory of creative geography. In short, it both reflects and provides commentary on the society it came from. There has been a refocus onto celluloid film's ability to capture an "indexical" image of a moment in time by theorists like Mary Ann Doane, Philip Rosen and Laura Mulvey who was informed by psychoanalysis. Truffaut dedicated the film to his friend and mentor, André Bazin. Think of a closeup, or a POV shot. Each volume deals with a single theory and a single film, with the aim of providing a discrete example of how film theory … NeoFormalism is a push back towards looking at the very elements that make up a film and a rejection of the over-reliance on symbolism in modern theory. All the latest video techniques and gear reviews, sent straight to your inbox. Introduction. The first, beginning in the late 1960s and early 1970s, focused on a formal critique of cinema’s dissemination of ideology, and especially on the role of the cinematic apparatus in this process. See also auteur theory. In Critical Cinema: Beyond the Theory of Practice (2011), Clive Meyer suggests that 'cinema is a different experience to watching a film at home or in an art gallery', and argues for film theorists to re-engage the specificity of philosophical concepts for cinema as a medium distinct from others.[20]. What is the male gaze? Videomaker is always looking for talented, qualified writers. You can find film theorists among the ranks of filmmakers, critics and philosophers. He was a proponent of documentary and Italian Neo-realism and was a founder and long-time editor of Cahiers Du Cinéma. Film theory involves looking at the film, individually or multiple films in a group, and analyzing how those films are connected to each other, to the group, to the audience, and to real life Discuss two reasons why people are interested in looking at the connections between films, films and … This is a small selection of notable theorists and is by no means comprehensive. Theory. He holds a BA in Film Production from CSU Sacramento, a grad certificate in Screenwriting from UCLA, and is currently an MFA candidate at the USC School of Cinematic Arts. Rather, it is a research tradition—one that originated in the 1980s with the work of a handful of scholars and today boasts a scholarly society, an annually held international conference, and … When you’re working on a tight budget, you have to take the help that you can get. Thus, filmmakers wanted to understand what was different about movies. With this, Marxist filmmakers use jump cuts and jarring edits to avoid suspension of disbelief within their audience. High quality Film Theory gifts and merchandise. Mast, Gerald; and Marshall Cohen, editors. Feminist Film Theory examines the relationship between women and film. (See, for example, Chatman (1990)and Smith (1995).) Feminist Film Theory also questions how representation on screen and in the filmmaking process reflect the real world. The 1990s brought the digital revolution. Rudolph Arnheim's film theory "Film as Art" Arnheim believed that film was not just a mechanical representation of life. What is Film Theory? Here’s what you need to know. His debut film, The 400 Blows, won him the Best Director award at the Cannes Film Festival. More specifically, they studied what makes film stand apart as its own distinct art form. Inspired designs on t-shirts, posters, stickers, home decor, and more by independent artists and designers from around the world. Like Kuleshov, Eisenstein believed that editing was the essential aspect that set film apart. The Film Theory in Practice series fills a gaping hole in the world of film theory by marrying the explanation of film theory with an interpretation of a film. Film theory is a set of scholarly approaches within the academic discipline of film or cinema studies that began in the 1920s by questioning the formal essential attributes of motion pictures;[1] and that now provides conceptual frameworks for understanding film's relationship to reality, the other arts, individual viewers, and society at large. It focuses on the relationship of the filmmaker to the film, and the relationship of the film to the audience. Feminist Film Theory is a theoretical film criticism derived from Feminist Theory that was brought about during the second wave of feminism and… "Philosophy of Film" by Thomas Wartenberg – first published 2004; substantive revision m 2008. See synonyms for film theory noun The field of study concerned with the evaluation and analysis of films, often incorporating concepts from other disciplines, such as philosophy, politics, literary theory… Gledhill, Christine; and Linda Williams, editors. Feminist film theory has emerged in the past 20 years to become a large and flourishing field. Her work focuses on the intersection of film theory, psychoanalysis and feminism. It examines and questions depictions of people whose sexual and gender identities have been historically marginalized. ... One notable exception is the film The Maltese Falcon (1941). 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