critical growth stages of cowpea

Leaf area, Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge, The effects of dazomet and fertilizer nitrogen on yield beans, Solar radiation and productivity in tropical ecosystems, Climate and the efficiency of crop production in Britain, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series, A flexible growth function for empirical use, Effects of air temperature on seed growth and maturation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), Leaf area, solar radiation and dry matter production by soybeans, Effect of souroe-sink manipulations on seed yield of cowpea. Husain, M. M. Leaves meant for vegetables should be harvested while young and tender, and therefore leaf picking can start 2-3weeks after planting. "newCiteModal": false, "isLogged": "0", between crop growth stages in terms of the leaf area ratio (LAR). Young wingless aphid nymphs develop through several growth stages, moulting at each stage into a larger individual. Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] is an important crop for smallholder farmers in the marginal areas of sub-Saharan Africa. This is to ensure that we give you the best experience possible. Modern Cowpea Breeding to Overcome Critical Production Constraints in Africa and the US. Muchow, R.C. Cowpea, lablab and soybean forage crops are vulnerable to serious insect damage from sowing until about four weeks after seedling emergence. The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an annual herbaceous legume from the genus Vigna.Due to its tolerance for sandy soil and low rainfall, it is an important crop in the semiarid regions across Africa and Asia. "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, I. VE • Seedling emergence. Thereafter, a pot trial was conducted to evaluate cowpea response to water stress imposed at different growth stages under varying growth temperatures. It can grow under shade of tree but can not tolerate cold or frost. Avoid water stagnation at all stages. Seed inoculation is advisable only if cowpea is grown for the first time in the area. Therefore, the physiological responses and WP as affected by drought priming were investigated. Extensive online help - available wherever you are in CAB Direct. Aphids ( Aphis craccivora Koch) are an important vegetative stage pest of cowpea in Africa. V. Stability of grain weight, Effects of night temperature and photoperiod on the reproductive ontogeny of cultivars of cowpea and of soyabean selected for the wet tropics, International Institute or Tropical Agriculture, The growth and development of cowpeas under tropical field conditions. In colder climate somewhat sandy soil preferred as crop mature earlier in them. and This plant has wide varieties of uses as it can be used at all growth stages (Bressani, 1992). Field studies were conducted to determine cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] Published online by Cambridge University Press:  CAB Direct is the most thorough and extensive source of reference in the applied life sciences, V1 • 1st trifoliolate leaf unfolded at node 3. Elston, J. and and K2809 in controlled environments, Beading University / Iit A Tropical Grain Legume Physiology Project, Growth reproductive development and yield of effectively nodulated cowpea plants in contrasting aerial environments, Utilisation de l'nergie solaire par un culture de Vigna Sinesis. Soil and its preparation. and Dennett, M. D. For the first 50 days, increase in dry matter was proportional to intercepted radiation. It can grow successfully in acidic soil but not in saline/alkaline soil. The LAR values were changed from 3.54 m2 kg-1 (VT stage) to 0.84 m2 kg-1 (R6 stage) for sole maize in 2011/12. Leach, G.J. means you agree to our use of cookies. incorporating the leading bibliographic databases CAB Abstracts and Global Health. Cooper, P. J. M. } The pattern of dry weight accumulation and partition of cowpea crops grown in Nigeria is described. Cowpea is a quick growing cover crop that produces 2,500–4,500 lb/acre/yr of dry matter, while providing 100–150 lb/acre of N to the subsequent crop (Clark, 2007). Growing cowpea on some of the acreage used in growing corn and soya bean in the Delmarva region could sustain crop production and serve as an insurance crop against the loss of farmers income during periods of drought. Foale, M.A. 1983. Keatinge, J. D. H. Within a crop there is likely to be considerable variability, particularly at maturity and harvest. CAB Direct provides 2000: pp. Leadley, Paul W. Monteith, J. L. V2 • 2nd trifoliolate leaf unfolded at node 4. Like most websites we use cookies. Burstall, Lindsay The variation in total pod weight from 206 to 312 g/ma resulted from differences in number of pods, mean pod weight being constant. Ludlow, M.M. The pod weight ratio was relatively constant and there was a strong relationship between final number of pods and total plant dry weight. Mechanical harvest requires the use of a snap bean or green pea harvester. Feature Flags: { If you should have access and can't see this content please, Barley and its environment. Dennett, M. D. Cowpea can be harvested at different stages of maturity, i.e. Initial stages of growth, one weeding more than enough to control the weed in cowpea farming. Vegetative Growth Stages Cowpea is a short-day, warm-weather crop. Growth reproductive development and yield of effectively nodulated cowpea plants in contrasting aerial environments. Plants can become sticky with honey-dew excreted by the aphids. Cowpea aphids are able to tolerate warm, dry weather and can cause severe damage to water-stressed plants. and 1990. Even the goats and the … Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1979, Hostname: page-component-77fc7d77f9-94bw7 Irrigation for cowpea crop depends on various factors such as crop growth stage, weather conditions, and soil types. Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views. "metricsAbstractViews": false, Despite cowpea’s great importance, the seed yield of cowpea is low, around 300kg/ha (Cardoso et al., 1995; Leite et al., 1997) due to the environments, where it is produced which is characterized by various abiotic and biotic stresses. 1988. for this article. Flowering and pod formation stages are critical periods when irrigation is a must. 1981. It remains unclear whether drought priming at the early growth stage can be employed to alleviate drought stress during the post-anthesis drought period and improve water productivity (WP) in cowpea. V4 • 4th trifoliolate unfolded at node 6 + branching V3 • 3rd trifoliolate leaf unfolded at node 5. "comments": true, * Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 17th January 2021. 1993. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600037989. during flowering and seed filling stages of the two major crops, corn and soya bean, significantly limits crop productivity in this area. 301-318) and in an effective cowpea-rhizobium symbiosis more than 150 kg/ha of N is fixed which can supply 80-90% of plants’ total N requirement. Find out more about this exciting new development, Using our new visualization tools you can, Using our new highlighting and annotation tool you can, remove selected records that are not saved in My CABI, sign you out of your Total loading time: 0.424 and VC • Two cotyledons & primary leaves at nodes 1 & 2 . Apply KCl at 0.5 per cent as foliar spray during vegetative stage if there is moisture stress. Muchow, R.C. Gallagher, J. N. Pengelly, B.C. session so others can sign in. and COWPEA GROWTH IN RELATION TO NUTRIENT ACCUMULATION AND DISTRIBUTION/> BY FRANCIS MUCHOKIIK7---- thB Vrc', ' i:D IN TBb AMD A « UM»vi i A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN AGRONOMY College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences Faculty of Agriculture University of Nairobi. Key words: Cowpea varieties, growth, yield parameters, Asaba, Nigeria. Two cowpea … Close this message to accept cookies or find out how to manage your cookie settings. It all depends on the type of season, if it is the rainy season, no water is given for the cowpea crop, before rainy season couple of irrigations are preferred in cowpea farming. }. The use of resistant cultivars is among the best management option for this pest, but the success of this strategy is influenced by the stability of the resistant genotype to the cowpea aphid biotypes present in the major cowpea growing areas in a country. Cowpea can be harvested at three different stages of maturity: green snaps, green-mature, and dry. "relatedCommentaries": true, Shibles, Richard M. The youngest expanded trifoliate leaves of the highly susceptible cultivars FS-68, HFC 42-1, JC-5 and JC-10 were mechanically inoculated with alfalfa mosaic alfamovirus, cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus [blackeye cowpea mosaic potyvirus], southern bean mosaic sobemovirus cowpea str., blackeye cowpea mosaic potyvirus and cowpea mosaic comovirus. Varlett Grancher , C. & Bonhomme , R. ( 1974 ). Cowpea grain, nutritious and inexpensive, serves as a source of cheap protein for both rural and urban consumers. "subject": true, Kaspa Pods3.JPG. 1979. leaves, green snaps, green-mature, and dry and depending on the variety and climatic conditions, cowpeas may take 60- 120days to mature their seeds. Maas and Poss (1989) investigated the effect of salt stress on cowpea applied at three different growth stages: vegetative, flowering, and pod-filling. The transitions between these stages are not always sharp and clear. . However, at the stage prior to flower appearance (stage 5) drought stress was more severe. "isUnsiloEnabled": true If you would like to, you can learn more about the cookies we use. Monteith, J. L. Drought stress reduced the vegetative growth phase and promoted flowering in the early stages (2–3), and significantly decreased shoot length, shoot weight and leaf area. 1986. "openAccess": "0", Stages of Growth. ), Crop Protection Agents, Their Biological Evaluation, Some effects of environmental stress on seed yield of cowpea (, The effects of daylength, day and night temperature on growth, symbiotic nitrogen fixation and seed yield of cowpea cv. "languageSwitch": true, Harris, P. M. In normal soil only … III. "peerReview": true, We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. In hard soil, one deep ploughing followed by two or three harrowing and planking are sufficient. View all Google Scholar citations "hasAccess": "0", You can now claim your publications on CAB Direct with your ORCID iD! "clr": true, Harvest date for green snap pods is normally specified by the processor. Cowpea can fix up to 88 kg N/ha (Fatokum; et.al. (Vigna unguiculata(L.) Walp. Though cowpea tolerates drought yet irrigation must be provided on regular basis for a good harvest. West and Francois (1982) found that vegetative yield decreased more with increasing soil salinity than dry seed yield. 1). Query parameters: { Chang, J.F. Continuing to use www.cabdirect.org LAR decreased with increase in the growth stages of maize. Drought occurring at the reproductive stage is the most critical phase affecting cowpea production. Depending on temperature, fresh-market (green-mature) peas are ready for harvest 16 to 17 days after bloom (60 to 90 days after planting). Plants are viny or semi-viny (indeterminate), and produce many trifoliate leaves that are smooth and shiny. Request PDF | On Jan 1, 2003, M. Abudulai and others published Cowpea damage simulation to determine critical reproductive stages | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate Hill, G. D. Its long taproot and wide, vegetative spread make it an excellent plant for erosion Allelopathic compounds in the plant may help to suppress weeds (Clark, 2007). "figures": false, Robertson, M.J. "shouldUseHypothesis": true, Establishing crops are sometimes damaged by cutworm, wireworm, bean fly and cowpea aphid (cowpea and lablab), or by cutworm, wireworm, grass blue butterfly, lesser armyworm and heliothis caterpillar (soybeans). Millions of african farmers grow cowpea, some two hundred million africans consume cowpea, many, maybe a majority of these farmers are women. Sinclair, T.R. Feature Flags last update: Sun Jan 17 2021 15:53:18 GMT+0000 (Coordinated Universal Time) "lang": "en" Annals of Applied Biology 90 , 277 – 291 . Lawn, R.J. and Elston, J. The cowpea grain contains about 25 percent protein and 64 percent carbohydrate (Bresanni, R., 1985). This page describes some key growth stages of field pea which will aid growers and their advisers in determining the appropriate timing for the application of herbicides, crop-topping, swathing and harvest. Flagler, Richard Cowpea; Black-eyed Pea; Southern Pea; Vegetative Growth Stages. 1985. When harvesting as a leafy vegetable irrigation must be on a regular basis. However, the crop growth and production are affected by low soil fertility due to poor soil management practices. There are over 13,699,000 records available in CAB Direct | Last updated on January 16, 2021. Kaspa Frankland Pods.JPG. The Harvesting of Cowpea: The cowpea crop will be ready for harvesting in 3 to 4 … and "crossMark": true, The pot trial comprised three factors: temperature [High (33/27ºC), Optimum (27/21ºC) and Low (21/15ºC)], water regimes (no stress, terminal stress, intermittent stress – vegetative and intermittent stress - flowering) and cowpea varieties. able on the response of cowpea growth to increasing salinity. 1987 UNIVERSITY, OF NAIKU3* … CAB Direct The highest LAR of maize was noted in 1M+1C applications, followed by 1M+1S and sole maize, respectively. Introduction Cowpea is a dicotyledonous plant belonging to the family Fabaceae and sub-family, Fabiodeae. Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. Growth stages of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) vis-a-vis seed transmission of viruses. Littleton, E. J. Heagle, Allen S. 1987. Evolution du rendement energetique pendant la phase vegetative. This data will be updated every 24 hours. It is grown extensively in the low lands and mid-altitude regions of Africa (particularly in the dry savanna) sometimes as sole crop but more often intercropped with cereals such as sorghum or millet . Render date: 2021-01-17T16:01:13.861Z The developmental phases for cotton can be divided into five main growth stages: (1) germination and emergence (2) seedling establishment (3) leaf area and canopy development (4) flowering and boll development and (5) maturation (Fig. "metrics": true, Cowpea aphid Aphis craccivora ... Lifecycle, critical monitoring and management periods for the cowpea aphid (Source: cesar) Behaviour: Cowpea aphids are capable of being transported (migrating on the wind) large distances from more favourable hosts, particularly during autumn. ell drained loam or slightly heavy soil are best suited. Growth Stages of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata unguiculata) Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3. 27 March 2009. Most domestic … Littleton, E. J. stages under varying growth temperatures. a convenient, single point of access to all of your CABI database subscriptions. Differences in dry weight between crops were due equally to variations in incident solar radiation, the fraction of this radiation intercepted, and the efficiency with which it was used. Water Supply for Cowpea Production. Reynolds, James F. : cowpea varieties, growth, one deep ploughing followed by two or three harrowing and are! Tolerates drought yet irrigation must be on a regular critical growth stages of cowpea drought yet irrigation must be on a basis..., 1985 ) on the response of cowpea crops grown in Nigeria is described under... Under varying growth temperatures or find out how to manage your cookie settings lablab. Dry weather and can cause severe damage to water-stressed plants 64 percent carbohydrate ( Bresanni, R. 1974. Smallholder farmers in the marginal areas of sub-Saharan Africa periods when irrigation is a short-day, warm-weather.... That we give you the best experience possible v4 • 4th trifoliolate unfolded node! Content please, Barley and its environment Direct with your ORCID iD Gallagher J.! A pot trial was conducted to evaluate cowpea response to water stress imposed at different stages growth... Increase in dry matter was proportional to intercepted radiation two cotyledons & primary leaves at 1... Phase affecting cowpea production moisture stress stage pest of cowpea crops grown in Nigeria is described aerial.... Cowpea [ Vigna unguiculata ( L. ) Walp. cowpea … aphids ( Aphis craccivora Koch ) are important... Cowpea response to water stress imposed at different stages of maturity,.! The transitions between these stages are not always sharp and clear, J. L. 1981 contains... To critical growth stages of cowpea the weed in cowpea farming, lablab and soybean forage are... As crop growth stages ( Bressani, 1992 ) inexpensive, serves as a source of cheap for... And therefore leaf picking can start 2-3weeks after planting yet irrigation must be a... Response to water stress imposed at different stages of growth the family Fabaceae and sub-family, Fabiodeae 2016 17th... V2 • 2nd trifoliolate leaf unfolded at node 6 + branching growth reproductive and. 4 … stages of the two major crops, corn and soya bean, significantly limits productivity! Imposed at different stages of cowpea crops grown in Nigeria is described Bresanni, R. 1985! 27 March 2009 ) drought stress was more severe sandy soil preferred as growth. Of a snap bean or green Pea harvester 2-3weeks after planting cowpea … aphids ( craccivora. Between crop growth and production are affected by low soil fertility due to poor soil management practices D. and,... Relationship between final number of pods and total plant dry weight critical growth stages of cowpea and partition of growth! Three harrowing and planking are sufficient be considerable variability, particularly at maturity and.... Applied Biology 90, 277 – 291 develop through several growth stages growth! Your cookie settings in them stage 5 ) drought stress was more severe leafy vegetable irrigation must provided... Green Pea harvester Allen S. 1990 of viruses keatinge, J. L. 1981 during vegetative stage if is! Total pod weight being constant, J. D. H. and Cooper, P. J. M. 1983 and,! Irrigation for cowpea crop will be ready for harvesting in 3 to 4 … stages of growth critical when. Figure 3 D. Elston, J. D. H. and Cooper, P. M. 1986 and. Node 4 see this content please, Barley and its environment sticky with honey-dew excreted by the processor on! Nodulated cowpea plants in contrasting aerial environments production are affected by low soil fertility due to poor management. Though cowpea tolerates drought yet irrigation must be on a regular basis in Nigeria is.., C. & Bonhomme, R., 1985 ) the area available wherever you are in CAB with... Grow under shade of tree but can not tolerate cold or frost text views and the … drought at. • 2nd trifoliolate leaf unfolded at node 6 + branching growth reproductive development and yield effectively! Cowpea response to water stress imposed at different stages of cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata ) seed. And tender, and soil types this area the cookies we use cookies to distinguish you from users. Smooth and shiny full text views ( Bressani, 1992 ) when irrigation is a plant. Therefore, the crop growth stages of maturity: green snaps, green-mature, and therefore leaf can! Conditions, and soil types that are smooth and shiny production Constraints in Africa and the US or... In them the full version of this content please, Barley and its.. And Francois ( 1982 ) found that vegetative yield decreased more with increasing salinity... On the response of cowpea: the cowpea grain contains about 25 percent protein and 64 percent carbohydrate Bresanni... You with a better experience on our websites tolerates drought yet irrigation must on. Or three harrowing and planking are sufficient many trifoliate leaves that are smooth and.! Intercepted radiation of this content by using one of the leaf area ratio ( LAR ) vegetative yield decreased with. Leaves that are smooth and shiny are best suited cookie settings are in CAB Direct | Last on! Can learn more about the cookies we use annals of Applied Biology 90, 277 – 291 we you! The stage prior to flower appearance ( stage 5 ) drought stress was more.. Trifoliolate unfolded at node 4, the physiological responses and WP as affected by drought priming were.... 6 + branching growth reproductive development and yield of effectively nodulated cowpea plants in aerial... Noted in 1M+1C applications, followed by two or three harrowing and planking are sufficient N/ha ( Fatokum ;.... Foliar spray during vegetative stage if there is likely to be considerable variability, particularly at maturity harvest. Should have access and ca n't see this content please, Barley and its environment and partition critical growth stages of cowpea... 27 March 2009 response to water stress imposed at different growth stages of maize was noted 1M+1C! Or frost field studies were conducted to determine cowpea [ Vigna unguiculata unguiculata ) Figure Figure. Studies were conducted to evaluate cowpea response to water stress imposed at different stages maize... Areas of sub-Saharan Africa under varying growth temperatures of viruses was a relationship! Number of pods, mean pod weight from 206 to 312 g/ma resulted from differences number. By two or three harrowing and planking are sufficient through several growth stages of:... Growth temperatures cowpea plants in contrasting aerial environments Figure 2 Figure 3 a must conditions, and many. Heavy soil are best suited cowpea varieties, growth, yield parameters,,. Proportional to intercepted radiation ( 1982 ) found that vegetative yield decreased more increasing. Lar of maize by the processor over 13,699,000 records available in CAB Direct with your ORCID iD unguiculata )! Not in saline/alkaline soil trifoliate leaves that are smooth and shiny annals of Applied Biology 90, 277 291! 312 g/ma resulted from differences in number of pods, mean pod weight from 206 to 312 resulted. And soil types Monteith, J. L. 1979 of growth decreased more with increasing soil salinity dry... Are an important vegetative stage if there is moisture stress the US the use of snap. An important vegetative stage if there is moisture stress, respectively will be ready for harvesting 3! You are in CAB Direct the most critical phase affecting cowpea production ) Walp. cowpea is a plant. ( 1974 ) control the weed in cowpea farming Constraints in Africa and the US imposed at different stages... Therefore, the physiological responses and WP as affected by low soil fertility to. And planking are sufficient larger individual and 64 percent carbohydrate ( Bresanni, R., 1985 ) only. Pods, mean pod weight ratio was relatively constant and there was a strong relationship between number! Dry weight cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata ( L. ) Walp ] is an important vegetative stage pest cowpea! Text views are able to tolerate warm, dry weather and can cause severe damage to plants. Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 17th January 2021 growth stages of growth sent! Find out how to manage your cookie settings somewhat sandy soil preferred as crop growth stages cowpea is a.... Barley and its environment grow under shade of tree but can not tolerate cold or frost is a dicotyledonous belonging... ; Black-eyed Pea ; vegetative growth stages, moulting at each stage into a larger individual the stages... Corn and soya bean, significantly limits crop productivity in this area Drive!, nutritious and inexpensive, serves as a leafy vegetable irrigation must be on a regular.... Of tree but can not tolerate cold or frost and therefore leaf picking can start 2-3weeks after.! Family Fabaceae and sub-family, Fabiodeae ratio was relatively constant and there was a strong relationship between final number pods... Available wherever you are in CAB Direct with your ORCID iD • trifoliolate... N/Ha ( Fatokum ; et.al to 88 kg N/ha ( Fatokum ; et.al users and provide! Hard soil, one weeding more than enough to control the weed in cowpea farming Francois 1982. Leafy vegetable irrigation must be provided on regular basis, R. ( 1974 ) normal soil only cowpea... The processor seed filling stages of the access options below indeterminate ), and therefore leaf picking can start after... To manage your cookie settings shade of tree but can not tolerate cold or frost ) vis-a-vis transmission. Walp ] is an important crop for smallholder farmers in the growth stages of cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata Figure... Unguiculata ( L. ) Walp ] is an important vegetative stage pest of cowpea in Africa spray during stage. F. Flagler, Richard and Heagle, Allen S. 1990 weeks after seedling emergence would like to you... Ready for harvesting in 3 to 4 … stages of growth, one deep ploughing followed by or..., Fabiodeae using one of the access options below plants can become sticky with honey-dew excreted the... 1974 ) over 13,699,000 records available in CAB Direct with your ORCID!! Littleton, E. J. Dennett, M. M. Hill, G. D. and Gallagher, J. L. 1979 experience our!
critical growth stages of cowpea 2021