criticism of psychoanalysis

Cinema and psychoanalysis were born around the same time. Although Freud's writings are the most influential, some interpretations employ the concepts of heretical psychoanalysts, notably Adler, Jung, and Klein. Show Less. Given these many valid criticisms of psychoanalytic theory, it is probably wise to approach Freud and his theories with a grain of salt. However, these stages should not be viewed as crucial to modern psychoanalysis. Two later papers-"Freud and Jung: Contrasts" and the introduction to a book by W. M. Kranefeldt-together form a basis for further study of Jung's reassessment of psychoanalysis. Even in Freud's circle, not all analysts agreed withFreud's assessment and there were debates concerningwomen's sexuality and the roles of castration and penis envytherein, notably among Karl Abraham, Ernest Jones, Helene Deutsch, andKaren Horney. Karl Popper argued that psychoanalysis is a pseudoscience because its claims are not testable and cannot be refuted; that is, they are not … By this he meant that psychoanalysis searches for deception in language, and thereby destabilizes our usual reliance on clear, obvious meanings. Psychoanalysis, influential method of treating mental disorders, shaped by psychoanalytic theory, which emphasizes unconscious mental processes and is sometimes described as ‘depth psychology.’ The psychoanalytic movement originated in the clinical observations and formulations of Austrian psychiatrist Sigmund Freud. Notably Lacan, mentioned this book with great disdain. », View all related items in Oxford Reference », Search for: 'psychoanalytic criticism' in Oxford Reference ». A form of literary interpretation that employs the terms of psychoanalysis (the unconscious, repression, the Oedipus complex, etc.) As withsom… As Celine Surprenant writes, 'Psychoanalytic literary criticism does not constitute a unified field. The book Anti-Freud: Karl Kraus’s Criticism of Psychoanalysis and Psychiatry, originally published under the name Karl Kraus and the Soul Doctors, portrayed Kraus as a harsh critic of Sigmund Freud and of psychoanalysis in general. One consequence is that some critics offer criticism of specific ideas present only in one or more theories, rather than in all of psychoanalysis while not rejecting other premises of psychoanalysis. Some theoretical criticism of psychoanalysis is based on the argument that it is over simplistic and reductive, because it reduces everything to the idea that we are all driven by our sexuality and does not take into consideration other factors. Freud’s psychoanalysis was criticized by his wife, Martha. Popper did not object to the idea that some mental processes could be unconscious but to investigations of the mind that were not falsifiable. […] notice of the dominant tone in the most respected associations: consider Dr. Mendel and the Drs Stéphane, the state of fury that is theirs, and their literally police-like appeal at the thought that someone might try to escape the Oedipal dragnet. But is this fair? Ricoeur claimed that psychoanalysis emphasizes the polyvocal or many-voiced qualities of language, focusing on utterances that mean more than one thing. As Trilling and others have objected, this approach risks reducing art to pathology. Some find that his psychological approach is a unique way to analyze a piece of art. Some even feel derision for Freud's school of thought. In this field of literary criticism, the major concepts of psychoanalytic theory, such as the idea of an unconscious and conscious mind, the divisions of the id, ego, and superego, and the Oedipus complex, are applied to literature to gain a deeper understanding of that work. While we don't have the room here to discuss all of Freud's work, a general overview is necessary to explain psychoanalytic literary criticism. The idea of “unconscious” is contested because human behavior can be observed while human mental activity has to be inferred. One response to this state of affairs is to argue that psychoanalytic theory itself has evolved since Freud, and that it is therefore unfair to bind psychoanalysis so tightly to the Freudian vision of repressed infantile sexual and aggressive urges, symbolically represented in dreams, errors, and symptoms, and revealed on the couch through free association. A comparable exercise is Wilson's essay ‘The Ambiguity of Henry James’ (1934), which interprets the ghosts in The Turn of the Screw as imaginary projections of the governess's repressed sexual desires. Dr. Bela Grunberger and Dr. Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel were two psychoanalysts from the Paris section of the International Psychoanalytical Association (IPa). One of the criticism is that analytical psychotherapy is like a religion worship, according to McGowan(1974), in What’s Wrong With Jung, examines the lack of proof and scientific research in Jungian psychology. A form of literary interpretation that employs the terms of psychoanalysis (the unconscious, repression, the Oedipus complex, etc.) The greatest criticism of the psychodynamic approach is that it is unscientific in its analysis of human behavior. However, there is no clean break between the theories of Freud and Jung. defense mechanisms, reaction formation). One of the largest criticisms of the psychoanalytic theory is that it places far to much emphasis on childhood. That is because Freud’s theories do not follow the … Oedipus is one of those things that becomes all the more dangerous the less people believe in it; then the cops are there to replace the high priests. Some post-colonialists argue that psychoanalysis imposes a white, European model of human development on those without European heritage, hence they will argue Freud’s theories are a form or instrument of intellectual imperialism. (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. Psychoanalysis arose from an appreciation of the power of people talking directly to one another about questions that matter and issues that are difficult to understand. psychoanalytic criticism  Other feminist scholars have argued that Freud opened up society to female sexuality, with French feminism based on psychoanalysis. in order to illuminate aspects of literature in its … It argues that literary texts, like dreams, express the secret unconscious desires and anxieties of the author, that a literary work is a … Defenders of psychoanalysis argue that many critics (such as feminist critics of Freud) have attempted to offer criticisms of psychoanalysis that were in fact only criticisms of specific ideas present only in one or more theories, rather than in all of psychoanalysis. Some significant criticisms are listed below. However, the unconscious is now a popular topic of study in the fields of experimental and social psychology (e.g., implicit attitude measures, fMRI, and PET scans, and other indirect tests). Karl Kraus, an Austrian satirist, was the subject of a book written by noted libertarian author Thomas Szasz. Peer Commentary. Grünbaum argues that psychoanalytic based theories are falsifiable, but that the causal claims of psychoanalysis are unsupported by the available clinical evidence. Psychoanalytic Criticism Psychoanalytic criticism adopts the methods of “reading” employed by Freud and later theorists to interpret texts. In fact, many contemporary psychologists view psychoanalysis with skepticism. And many of us are asking wh… Psychoanalytic reading has been practiced since the early development of psychoanalysis itself, and has developed into a heterogeneous interpretive tradition. in order to illuminate aspects of literature in its connection with conflicting psychological states. According to Marie Bonaparte, Martha was upset with her husband’s work and his treatment of sexuality. The IPa analysts responded accusing the Lacan school of “intellectual terrorism”. PRINTED FROM OXFORD REFERENCE (www.oxfordreference.com). However, with the publication of the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual much of this lack of cohesion has been resolved. Peter Medawar, an immunologist, said in 1975 that psychoanalysis is the “most stupendous intellectual confidence trick of the twentieth century”. Like cultural critics and literary scholars, Ricoeur contended, psychoanalysts spend their time interpreting the nuances of language — the language of their patients. The theory significantly influenced literary critics as they apply the approach of a tripartite model for analyzing the literary characters and its actions. Psychoanalysis is rarely used now in its original form but it is still used in a shorter version in some cases. There are many reasons that cause the traumatic event such as the feelings of security, problems of the world and human rights. Ricoeur classified psychoanalysis as a hermeneutics of suspicion. Literature, View all reference entries ». E. Fuller Torrey, writing in Witchdoctors and Psychiatrists (1986), stated that psychoanalytic theories have no more scientific basis than the theories of traditional native healers, “witchdoctors” or modern “cult” alternatives such as est. Freud often acknowledged his debts to the poets, and his theory of the Oedipus complex is itself a sort of commentary upon Sophocles' drama. These studies also have not confirmed that such traits in adults result from childhood experiences (Fisher & Greenberg, 1977, p. 399). They use the sam… C. There are no female evolutionary psychologists. Frank Cioffi, author of Freud and the Question of Pseudoscience, cites false claims of a sound scientific verification of the theory and its elements as the strongest basis for classifying the work of Freud and his school as pseudoscience. Criticisms also have been leveled against the idea of "infantile sexuality" (the recognition that children between ages two and six imagine things about procreation). Noam Chomsky has also criticized psychoanalysis for lacking a scientific basis. The beginnings of this modern tradition are found in Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams (1900), which provides a method of interpreting apparently unimportant details of narratives as ‘displacements’ of repressed wishes or anxieties. Criticism of Psychoanalysis. A third possible object of analysis, after the author and the fictional protagonist, is the readership. The subtler forms of psychoanalytic criticism make allowance for ambiguous and contradictory significances, rather than merely discovering hidden sexual symbolism in literary works. Psychoanalytic Criticism Psychoanalytic criticism adopts the methods of "reading" employed by Freud and later theorists to interpret texts. More profitable are analyses of fictional characters, beginning with Freud's own suggestions about Prince Hamlet, later developed by his British disciple Ernest Jones: Hamlet feels unable to kill his uncle because Claudius's crimes embody his own repressed incestuous and patricidal wishes, in a perfect illustration of the Oedipus complex. Psychoanalysis and its theoretical underpinnings have had an enormous influence on modern psychology and psychiatry and in fields as diverse as literary theory, anthropology, and film criticism. Ambitious interpretations of literary works as symptoms betraying the authors' neuroses are found in ‘psychobiographies’ of writers, such as Marie Bonaparte's Edgar Poe (1933), which diagnoses sadistic necrophilia as the problem underlying Poe's tales. For example: class, political ideology, ecosystem or even spirituality. Between two-thirds and three-fourths of “neurotics” would recover naturally; this was no different from therapy clients. What is crucial to modern psychoanalytic theory and practice is the power of the unconscious and the transference phenomenon. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single entry from a reference work in OR for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice). Embedded in the texts are the author’s own feelings, desires, and thoughts. Psychological criticism is an approach to literary criticism that interprets writings, authors, and readers through a psychological lens. How to Build Trust in a Relationship Using CBT? This deconstruction of Freud casts doubt upon the possibility of delimiting psychoanalysis as a rigorous science. For example, if a client’s reaction was not consistent with the psychosexual theory then an alternate explanation would be given (e.g. In other words, if it were possible to connect every conceivable experimental outcome with Freud’s theory of the unconscious mind, then no experiment could refute the theory. Here the question is why certain kinds of story have such a powerful appeal to us, and numerous answers have been given in Freudian terms, usually focusing on the overcoming of fears (as in Gothic fiction) or the resolution of conflicting desires (as in comedy and romance). An increasing amount of empirical research from academic psychologists and psychiatrists has begun to address this criticism. The 'parts' of the theory have been listed as: infantile or childhood sexual trauma as the cause of hysteria; the pan-sexualism of mental life which makes every trend revert to the sexual; the mechanism of repression and displacement; the unconscious; sexuo-symbolism; the curing of neuroses by psycho-(sexuo-) analysis; and so on. Michel Foucault and Gilles Deleuze, as a sociological analysis without meaning to criticize, claimed that the institution of psychoanalysis has become a center of power and that its confessional techniques resemble the Christian tradition. Luce Irigaray criticised psychoanalysis, employing Jacques Derrida’s concept of phallogocentrism to describe the exclusion of the woman from Freudian and Lacanian psychoanalytical theories. Psychoanalysis grew in its influence over the course of the early twentieth century, but it was not without its critics. Its connection with conflicting psychological states, See all related overviews in Oxford Reference » that... 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